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In-Text Citations in APA Style | Research Conduction

Published on April 26th, 2017 | Last updated on February 23rd, 2021 by | Category: TESOL / TESL Issues through CALL | No Comments on In-Text Citations in APA Style | Research Conduction | 87 Views | Reading Time: 2 minutes

In-text citations in APA Style

In-text citations in APA Style

  • If you use something second hand, you must make it clear. The following examples are intended to clarify this point:
  • Some fact (Smith, as cited in Jones, 1982): You are citing an author indirectly as you don’t have the exact source of the author. Instead, you are citing the author in another source written by another author.
  • Note that in this example, only the Jones reference would be placed in the reference section.
  • While using (et al.), you should use a plural verb.
  • Numerous ways to formally cite a reference in the text:
  • Some fact (last name, year)
  • Last name (year) noted that…
  • In <year>, <last name> reported that…
  • The first time the reference is cited in the text, spell out all of the authors’ last names. For example, Miller, Rosellini, and Seligman (1975) suggested that…
  • With articles that have three or more authors, use the Latin abbreviation et al., for “and others” when the reference is cited a second or (third) time. E.g., Miller et al. (1975) suggested that…
  • Verbs of Citations:
  • Argue – note – propose – maintain – say – mention – put forward – state – declare – add – stipulate – conclude – report.
  • If the citation is in parentheses and you need to use the word “and”, use the ampersand “&” instead. If the citation is not in parentheses, you must use the word “and”. E.g., (Estes & Skinner, 1940) have suggested that…
  • Estes and Skinner (1940) have suggested that…
  • Multiple citations in parentheses are placed alphabetically and are separated by a semicolon and a space:
  • Some fact (Carlson, 1972; Moon, 1968; Partin, 1980).
  • Specifically, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all names in the first in-text citation but are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al. upon subsequent citations; and articles with six or more authors are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al. for all in-text citations.

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