Figures are used to display information discussed in the text in a concise format that is easy to comprehend. They generally consist of graphs, charts, pictures, diagrams, and illustrations.
- Figures should not be used to duplicate textual information. Rather, they are used as a helpful complement to or amplification of what is expressed verbally in the text.
- As with tables, each figure should be referred to in the body of the paper, where the author should also indicate what in the figure is relevant to the issue under discussion.
- As with tables again, each figure must be identified by a number, ordered consecutively, and given a brief and descriptive caption.
- In theses and dissertations, figures must appear in the text itself. That is, in theses, we should not place figures or tables at the end of the study.
- Figures do not have headers or page numbers.
- Center each figure on the page vertically as well as horizontally and arrange for the figure to use the bulk of the page.
- If the figure is a chart or graph, vertically label the axes (do not use “X” and “Y”) and provide a key if necessary (e.g., explaining what open vs. filled circles are).
- On the back of each figure (with a pencil), put the manuscript page header, the figure number, and the word TOP to indicate how the figure should appear on the page.
- Each figure caption is typed flush left in block format.
- Captions include the figure title and a brief, but descriptive explanation of the figure.
- Double-space the caption and place it below the figure.
- Number figures in the order they are first mentioned in the text.
- Do not write “the figure above” or “the figure below”.
- Figure caption should be in a sentence format followed by a period. You should not write the figure caption in boldface.
- Only the first letter of the first word in your figure caption should be capitalized, and the other words are written in lower case.
- The word ‘Figure’ and the number are italicized, e.g.:
- Figure 1. Practicing negotiation of meaning on challenging topics by entering 2 opposing voice channels on Discord.