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Noticing Hypothesis

(1990, 1994, 2001) claimed that to is a conscious process. He viewed (i.e. registering formal features in the ) and (i.e. identifying how the to which the learner is expected differs from the output the learner is able to generate) as essential processes in .

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  • Noticing the gap: Noticing the gap is identifying how the input to which the learner is expected differs from the output the learner is able to generate.

Schmidt (1990) believes that in the sense of of the form of the input at the level of noticing is necessary to subsequent . ‘’ is in contrast with ‘’ proposed by (1981) that says that SLA largely results from an ‘unconscious’ acquisition system.

In Schmidt and (1986), we read that their central contention is that little (possibly no) learning of new linguistic material from input is possible without attended processing. Schmidt (2001) drew on the work of and (1994) in distinguishing three subsystems of attention. Attention as ‘’. Refers to motivation and readiness to learn. Here he made the point that noticing and acquisition are not dependent on learner intention (i.e. involuntary noticing can occur). ‘’ concerns the general focus on attention (for example, whether on meaning or on form), which can also be influenced by the design of the tasks. ‘’ refers to the cognitive registration of stimuli that allows for the further processing of information. It is here that controversy exists both regarding whether involves awareness and whether it requires only global attention. With regard to the first of these controversies, Schmidt (2001) distinguished a strong and weak form of the Noticing Hypothesis. The strong form, which reflects his earlier position, states that “there is no learning whatsoever from input that is not noticed”, while the weak form, indicative of his later position, allows for representation and storage of unattended stimuli in memory but claims that “people learn about the things they attend to and do not learn much about the things they do not attend to”. On the second issue, Schmidt argued that attention needs to be specifically directed. As he put it, “nothing is free”.

Schmidt (1990) defined ‘noticing’ as the availability for .

Noticing is referred to as the conscious attention to the form of input.

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