Acclivity Definition in Context with Images

Acclivity definition in context with images and antonyms from the book, Vocabulary for the College-bound Student. Learn the word, acclivity, in authentic short passages and text-to-speech carefully illustrated. /əˈklɪvɪti/ (noun) Acclivity definition an upward slope usually on a hill which is the opposite of declivity as a downward slope, elevation, mound Example There is an … Read more

Attention and Memory | TESL Issues

Attention Attention is viewed as a mainly conscious process involving working memory (Ellis, 2008). Suchert (2004) defines attention as “A process in which biological mechanisms interact when goal-directed behaviours and stimulus-driven responses converge in action (p. 144). Schmidt (1990, 1993, 1994) has argued that attention is essential to learning; that is, there is no learning … Read more

International Space Station | A Listening Practice Course

International Space Station | A Listening Practice Course International Space Station | A Listening Practice Course Listen to this audio file. Questions about the Listening Track Where is this female astronaut located? Why can astronauts sleep in any orientation they like? Why was the female astronaut’s hair disheveled? How long has she been staying in … Read more


Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model (with integrative motivation the key construct) was the dominant theory in early motivation research.

A social-psychological factor frequently used to account for differential success in learning a second language is motivation. This has an intuitive appeal. It makes sense that individuals who are motivated will learn another language faster and to a greater degree. And, quite clearly, some degree of motivation is involved in initial decisions to learn another language and to maintain learning (Gass & Selinker, 2008).

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