Login for Free Services

Integrative Motivation in SLA | TESL Issues


Dörnyei (2005) pointed out that the term ‘integrative motivation’ has often been misunderstood and suggested that this is because the term ‘integrative’ figures in three separate, distinct, but related constructs: ‘integrative orientation’, ‘’, and ‘the integrative motive/motivation’. Integrative Motivation can be defined as involving three subcomponents:

  1. Integrativeness (including integrative orientation, interest in foreign languages, and attitudes towards the L2 community)
  2. Attitudes towards the learning situation (i.e. attitudes towards the teacher and the L2 course)
  3. Motivation (i.e. the effort, desire, and towards L2 learning).

(2002) put it, that “the student who endorses integrative attitudes, or more simply an integrative orientation or goal, but who does not show effort or engagement with the language, is simply not a motivated learner” (p. 48). and ’s (1972) integrative orientation was seen as a more powerful predictor of achievement in formal learning situations than instrumental orientation. and Lambert also acknowledged that learners can have both integrative and .

In order to demonstrate the overall effect of motivation on L2 achievement, Gardner (1980, 1985) chose to report the effects of a general measure of motivation (based on the (), which includes variables relating to both integrative and instrumental motivation).

Integrative motivation does not affect language learning directly, rather its effect is mediated by the learning behaviors that it instigates. Gardner, Gliksman & Smythe (1982) provided evidence to show that students studying French in Canadian high schools received directed teacher questions, volunteered answers, gave correct answers, and received positive reinforcement according to the strength of their integrative motivation. The higher their integrative motivation, the more these classroom behaviors were evident.

Gardner’s construct has also been challenged on methodological and theoretical grounds. First, the of the AMTB has been criticized. Furthermore, Gardner viewed motivation as causative (i.e. it led to L2 achievement) but a number of studies indicated that, in some learners, motivation resulted from success in learning.

Gardner has been vigorous in defense of integrative motivation as a primary factor accounting for L2 achievement and has somewhat stubbornly refused to entertain alternative models of motivation.

Study the complete archive of TESL Issues.

? English Lessons on Aparat and YouTube

? English Flashcards on Instagram and Telegram Channel

Leave your questions or comments below.

Please Login to comment
Notify of

Login and join this discussion.

This topic contains 1 reply, has 2 voices, and was last updated by  Sasan 2 days, 20 hours ago.

  • Author
  • #40593

    Dr. Hariri

    Would you rather be happy yet slow-witted and unimaginative, or unhappy yet bright and creative? For instance, would you rather live the life of a brilliant yet tortured artist, such as Vincent van Gogh, or that of a happy but carefree soul who is a bit simple-minded?

  • #40672


    I prefer to challenge this question at first and bring up my viewpoint next.
    There are different successful people in the world who reached the apex through different procedures. Although some have faced torture to reach their goals, it does not mean we have to necessarily lose something in our life to climb the ladder of success. Anyway, I suppose the most enjoyable part of life is making progress and relying on your abilities to flourish and thrive. So, I personally go for intelligence and innovation rather than happiness along with naivety. Many people have lived an ordinary life so far and repeating this story can never excite me at all. We need to gain new adventurous experiences and foster our abilities so as to break out of comfort zone.

You must be logged in to reply to this topic.

Close Menu