Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) | TESL Issues

Zone of Proximal Development

  • The : According to (1978, p. 85), it is the level of development of the child’s mental functions that has been established as a result of certain already completed developmental cycles.
  • The : It is performed through problem solving activities undertaken with the of an adult (an expert) or through with peers (novices). This second level of development is the main one in . As Vygotsky has stated, it is the ‘bud’ rather than the ‘fruit’ of development.
  • In the third level of development, the learner is unable to perform the task even if assistance is provided.

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