Classroom Ethnography | TESL Issues

Classroom Ethnography Classroom ethnography involves the kind of detailed descriptive work advocated by Johnson (1995). They emphasise the importance of obtaining multiple perspectives through triangulation. Watson-Gegeo (1997) distinguished four approaches to classroom ethnography: Ethnography of communication Micro-ethnography Discourse analysis Critical ethnography The ethnography of communication has its origins in anthropology and, in particular, in the … Read more

Inter-Group Theory in Language Learning | TESL Issues

Inter-group Theory Inter-group Theory Giles and Byrne (1982) identified a number of factors that contribute to a group’s ‘ethnolinguistic vitality’—the key construct in the theory. They then discussed the conditions under which subordinate group members (e.g. immigrants or members of an ethnic minority) are most likely to acquire native-like proficiency in the dominant group’s language. … Read more

Interaction Hypothesis in SLA | TESL Issues

Interaction Hypothesis Interaction Hypothesis Long’s Interaction Hypothesis, especially the updated version, claims that learners do need to pay conscious attention to form in order to benefit from negotiated interaction. The origins of Long’s Interaction Hypothesis lies partly in Hatch’s work on discourse analysis and L2 acquisition and partly in Krashen’s Input Hypothesis. Hatch (1978, p. … Read more

Conversation Analysis | TESL Issues

Conversation Analysis Conversation Analysis Like ‘discourse analysis’, Conversational Analysis provides a tool for conducting micro-analyses of classroom discourse and, in particular, for examining the sequential development of classroom talk (Mori, 2002). CA derives from a branch of sociology-ethnomethodology. Seedhouse (2004) identified five key principles of this method of enquiry: Indexicality, i.e. the use that interactants … Read more

Pragmatics and Speech Acts Theory | TESL Lessons

Pragmatics Pragmatics refers to the field of study where linguistic features are considered in relation to users of the language (Morris, 1938; Levinson, 1983). Researchers have investigated what speakers accomplish when they perform utterances in terms of (1) interactional acts, and (2) speech acts. Interactional acts give structure to the discourse by ensuring that one … Read more

Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics | TESL Issues

Discourse Analysis Discourse analysis serves as a device for systematically describing the kinds of interactions that occur in language classrooms. Drawing on initial work on content classrooms by Bellack (1966) and by the Birmingham School of linguistis (Sinclair & Coulthard (1975) discourse analysts give attention not only to the function of individual utterances but also … Read more