Input Hypothesis Specifications | TESL Lessons

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Motivation

Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model (with integrative motivation the key construct) was the dominant theory in early motivation research.

A social-psychological factor frequently used to account for differential success in learning a second language is motivation. This has an intuitive appeal. It makes sense that individuals who are motivated will learn another language faster and to a greater degree. And, quite clearly, some degree of motivation is involved in initial decisions to learn another language and to maintain learning (Gass & Selinker, 2008).

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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) | TESL Issues

Zone of Proximal Development

Zone of Proximal Development

  • The Actual Developmental Level: According to Vygotsky (1978, p. 85), it is the level of development of the child’s mental functions that has been established as a result of certain already completed developmental cycles.
  • The Potential Developmental Level: It is performed through problem solving activities undertaken with the assistance of an adult (an expert) or through collaboration with peers (novices). This second level of development is the main one in ZPD. As Vygotsky has stated, it is the ‘bud’ rather than the ‘fruit’ of development.
  • In the third level of development, the learner is unable to perform the task even if assistance is provided.

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