Noticing Hypothesis

Schmidt (1990, 1994, 2001) claimed that attention to input is a conscious process. He viewed noticing (i.e. registering formal features in the input) and noticing the gap (i.e. identifying how the input to which the learner is expected differs from the output the learner is able to generate) as essential processes in L2 acquisition.

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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) | TESL Issues

Zone of Proximal Development

Zone of Proximal Development

  • The Actual Developmental Level: According to Vygotsky (1978, p. 85), it is the level of development of the child’s mental functions that has been established as a result of certain already completed developmental cycles.
  • The Potential Developmental Level: It is performed through problem solving activities undertaken with the assistance of an adult (an expert) or through collaboration with peers (novices). This second level of development is the main one in ZPD. As Vygotsky has stated, it is the ‘bud’ rather than the ‘fruit’ of development.
  • In the third level of development, the learner is unable to perform the task even if assistance is provided.

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